Coral vegetables, as the mushroom-like plants on the rocks are commonly called. Have you ever heard of or seen this sea vegetable? Coral vegetables or the Latin name Porphyra sp is a type of seaweed or marine macroalgae, which is a potential renewable source in the marine environment.
For the coastal communities of Ambon, Maluku, this plant has been used for generations, as a vegetable or medicine.
Sayur coral is a type of plant on a rock with the time of collection in Ambon during the east monsoon. This east season refers to the wind blowing from the east, usually the rainy season is between May and early September. This period, also synonymous with the appearance of this coral plant.
Ferdi Waas, a resident of Hatalai Country, South Leitmur (Letisel) District, Ambon City, Maluku, is struggling to get sea vegetables from the rocks.
He said the place where sponges were collected so far was on the coast, Negeri Hukurila, Leitisel, Ambon City. There, he said, this type of seaweed thrives during the east monsoon.
Uniquely, to get quality results when the sponges are hit by the waves. They have to take care to pass one by one the rock cliffs. Not to mention the big waves moving against the rocks.
Every east season, he said, coastal residents always take the time to take these sponges to make side dishes, and even sell them.
For the coastal residents of South Leitimur, the coast of Hukurila Village is the center of this sea vegetable. The sea and the coast there are rocky. Currently, Hukurila Beach is a tourist destination in Ambon City, which has beautiful beaches and underwater parks.
This plant is like a parasite that thrives on rocks. Vegetables grow thickly, you can see brown or yellowish rocks.
After hunting for these sea vegetables, said Ferdi, they usually process them directly by cooking them or drying them. Ferdi’s family, used to make this vegetable ointment.
Preparations similar to urap made from sponges are of interest to the Ambonese Coastal community.
What are coral vegetables?
Based on the research journal Radja BD Sormin, from the Fisheries Product Technology Study Program, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Pattimura University, coral vegetables, including types of algae from the Rhodophyta division that grow or attach to rocks in tidal areas. It appears when the east monsoon arrives between June and September.
In the research journal, Radja wrote about the many types of seaweed in Maluku that people have used for generations as vegetables and medicines. One type of seaweed as a vegetable is this sea vegetable.
This type, he said, is often found in Hukurila Village, Ambon.
In Indonesia, said the study, there are several types of seaweed that have economic value, such as Eucheuma , Gracilaria , Gellidium , Sargassum and Hypnea , and several types that have been cultivated, such as Eucheuma cottoni .
The habit of consuming sea vegetables by the people has been around for a long time, even it was estimated before foreign nations discovered this area.
Written evidence left by Rumphius, a German-born Dutch biologist, in 1750 explains, in the 16th century when the Dutch occupied Ambon, residents used to cook various macroalgae with various spices and other ingredients to produce delicious dishes.
In the medical field, according to Romimohtarto and Juwana 2009 , sea vegetables are traditionally believed to be able to improve digestion, lower cholesterol and reduce fever.
Not only processed into fresh vegetables and ointment, from this research coral vegetables can also be processed as high-value food and medicine.
The Ambon Industrial Research and Standardization Center also conducted a study entitled ” Analysis of nori nutrition from Porphyra marcossi sea grass in Maluku waters , ” to analyze the nutritional quality of nori from Porphyra marcossi seaweed . As a result, this type is able to replace the use of imported nori to meet domestic needs.
Researcher Voulda D. Loupatty said the results showed that this type of seaweed has quite high nutritional value.
Also in this research journal, Loupatty writes that in Maluku, especially around Ambon Island, there is a type of red seaweed commonly consumed by coastal communities known as the regional name Huangisi or stuffed vegetables or also called slippery lumu-lumu, while its scientific name is Porphyra marcossi.
It is estimated that the Archipelago Capital Authority Agency will find it difficult to quickly restore 65 percent of the forest cover in the Archipelago Capital Region [IKN]. The damage is considered to require proper handling, namely by restoration from upstream to downstream.
This was revealed by forestry researchers from East Kalimantan [East Kalimantan], in a Focus Group Discussion [FGD] with the Sustainitiate Institute at the Mulawarman University Campus, Samarinda, at the end of June 2023.
Researchers assess that the IKN area is still far from becoming a sustainable forest city . This is because the IKN area first became an industrial plantation forest [HTI] and not all HTI areas can be turned back into tropical rain forests.
Dr. Agus Setyarso from the Yogyakarta Agricultural Institute explained that the IKN area is not yet ready to become a smart and sustainable forest city.
Restoration starts from governance issues, environmental issues such as biodiversity, watersheds [DAS] and carbon, as well as socio-economic issues.
Governance in question, related to the problem of conflict. Several studies related to the feasibility study of project development at IKN, seem to have not been completed or not optimal. This has become an important issue, resulting in social conflict and involving local communities, which is really needed to restore the IKN.
“There are several feasibility studies where social problems are not carried out in depth, they must be corrected in order to avoid social conflict,” said Agus.
Restoration collaboration _
Deputy Chancellor for General Affairs, HR and Finance at Mulawarman University, Sukartiningsih explained, the good impact on restoration will come to the restoration of the Bukit Soeharto Community Forest Park [Tahura].
This Tahura is a buffer for IKN. However, the condition is considered not good because it is bare and many illegal mines are found.
“Restoration collaboration restores the glory of the forest in the IKN area and of course the government will take care of it.”
Sukartinisngsih said Mulawarman University would be involved, because the restoration collaboration was in line with the campus’ main scientific pattern [PIP], namely as a Center for Excellence in Tropical Studies. To strengthen forest cover, research institutions, local community groups and customary law communities will be involved.
“We hope that IKN can show the diverse national identity of the nation,” he explained.
Deputy for Environment and Natural Resources, IIKN Authority Agency, Myrna Safitri explained, the Authority Agency has an obligation to make 65 percent of the IKN area a protected area.
In 2024, he continued, 65 percent of the protected areas would not be visible.
“It took decades. Why is that, because the damage is also decades. It can definitely be realized, because the government has already done it elsewhere, with a number of conditions,” he said.
The requirement in question is that all parties comply with the provisions in spatial planning. In addition, all parties must synergize and commit that protected areas must be maintained.
Currently, what is being done is cooperation. For example, in the IKN there are certain areas that do exist and have been developed by the community. The area will be further developed into agroforestry.
“So, the development is with the community. Agro forestry is also part of forestry efforts,” he explained.
For information , the land area of the IKN location is around 256 thousand hectares. Most of the area is HTI planted with eucalyptus . There are also several oil palm plantation business permits [IUP] and mining business permits [IUP]. Of this area, not all cities were built, only around 50 thousand hectares, gradually until 2045.
Prepare a Legal Umbrella, the IKN Authority Guarantees Environmental Protection and Local Wisdom
The Archipelago Capital City Authority Agency [OIKN] is currently compiling legal products for environmental protection and local wisdom in the IKN area. This idea is included in the Draft Regulation of the Head of OIKN [Raperka] Local Wisdom.
Even though it is only a draft, the Authority Agency said the Raperka Local Wisdom will guarantee the sustainability of natural ecosystems through cultured local wisdom. This regulation regulates the procedures for recognizing, protecting, and promoting local wisdom in environmental protection and management [PPLH].
Deputy for Environment and Natural Resources, IKN Authority Agency, Myrna Asnawati Safitri said that the issue of environmental protection is the main focus in the development of IKN. However, the protection referred to is not only natural ecosystems, but also includes culture and local wisdom.
In Law Number 32 of 2009 concerning PPLH, the state guarantees environmental sustainability based on local wisdom, in the form of noble values that apply in people’s lives. Among other things, protecting and managing the environment in a sustainable manner.
“The aim of Raperka is to provide legal certainty for local wisdom in IKN,” he said.
Myrna said that the construction of the IKN was designed in harmony with nature, namely an ecological balance with an environmental perspective and spatial planning.
Of the land area of about 256,142 hectares, it is divided into several parts. Each, 65 percent in the form of protected areas and 10 percent for food production. For the city area, an area of 56,180 hectares will be built, of which 50 percent is green open space with building designs using environmentally friendly construction.
In 2023, the construction of the IKN has been carried out. The Authority said that protection of local wisdom practices must be carried out immediately so that the pace of physical development is not crushed.
When asked about indigenous peoples in the IKN area, Myrna said that the Raperka for the protection of local wisdom also functions to protect indigenous peoples and their territories. However, it cannot be written as protection of indigenous peoples, because there will be a derivative product, namely the recognition of indigenous peoples in the IKN area.
The Authority Agency prioritizes environmental preservation practices from the local wisdom of indigenous peoples.
Indigenous people’s expectations
The customary head of the Balik tribe, Sibukdin, explained that currently all forms of local wisdom that exist in the IKN area are not only from one tribe. Rather, all local people who have mixed with the indigenous tribes in East Kalimantan. However, since it was inaugurated as an IKN, all forms of local wisdom have been hampered by regulations.
“We are farmers and cultivators. For rice, we plant mountain rice, but the regulation prohibiting burning the land has made this local wisdom disappear. In fact, when setting fire to fields, there are customary rules that do not allow the fire to spread. That’s just one example,” he said, Saturday [17/6/2023].
Through the Raperka Local Wisdom, indigenous peoples in IKN hope that there will be recognition for their territory.
“Hopefully we can manage together. With the Raperka, the government will certainly protect our customary territories. Indigenous peoples and local communities must be involved in maintaining local wisdom. Especially, protecting the environment and culture at IKN,” he said.
Martinus Nanang, an anthropologist in East Kalimantan, explained that in making the Raperka Local Wisdom, there are many things that must be considered. Especially, related to the welfare of indigenous peoples and local communities in the IKN area itself.
Basically, access to local wisdom are individuals, community groups, community organizations, professional organizations, institutions and or business entities. According to him, the Authority Body must pay attention to all of this, because internal claims can occur which cause the exclusion of certain parties.
“Local wisdom areas have cultural forms and characteristics. In order to be right on target, it is necessary to have an inventory of membership. These administrators have rights and obligations that must be fulfilled for the continuation of the Raperka Local Wisdom,” he concluded.